Vaccination related questions

Vaccines are administered at health care facilities that have a license granting the right to provide relevant personal health care services. Immunoprophylaxis against seasonal influenza, tick-borne encephalitis or other infectious diseases when employees are vaccinated at the employer's or their own expense, also when implementing mass vaccination programme, can be conducted at other places (e.g. workplaces, pharmacies, educational institutions). 

Vaccines can be prescribed and/or administered by doctors; administered by doctors, nurses, obstetricians and pharmacists with extensive practice, whose competence is regulated by legal acts. 

Vaccination can be administered to individuals only with their consent, except for cases provided for in other legal acts and when individuals are incapable of giving informed consent – in that case informed consent of parents/legal representatives must be obtained in accordance with law. 
Immunoprophylaxis can be administered to individuals only with their consent, except for cases provided for by other legal acts, and when they are incapable of giving informed consent – in that case informed consent of parents/legal representatives must be obtained in accordance with law.

Every health care facility ensures that the "cold chain" is maintained for the transportation and storage of all immune medicinal products. 

Unused or expired immunological medicinal products  are handled as pharmaceutical waste according to the procedure established by legal acts.

Operational control (unplanned inspection) will be conducted, but only if there is a reasoned order of specific format to carry out the inspection signed by the head of the National Public Health Center (NVSC) or an authorized person. 

During the inspection of a health care facility regarding  immunoprophylaxis, the following criteria are evaluated: whether vaccination is carried out on time, the coverage of vaccination, reasons for not vaccinating, whether the "cold chain" requirements are ensured, the uptake of vaccines, the period of validity of the vaccines, identification and reporting of adverse reactions, and documentation.

Antibiotic prophylaxis (chemoprophylaxis) is administered to prevent secondary cases of MI among susceptible people and to stop the spread of infection.
Chemoprophylaxis is administered to individuals who have been in close contact with MI as early as possible (no later than 7 days after the contact).

After examining the nature and the circumstances of the wound, the doctor may recommend tetanus immunoprophylaxis.

As of 1 July  2018, vaccines against type B meningococcus have been included in the Preventive Vaccination Schedule for Children, and  Bexsero vaccine is administered in three doses: at 3 months, at 5 months and at 12-15 months.

Because of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) ability to cause infection without obvious symptoms, many people infected with HBV do not even know they are infected.
In children, if they contract HBV at a very young age, the disease is severe and often fatal.
For this reason, the HBV vaccine is recommended for newborns because the benefits of the vaccine clearly and unequivocally outweigh the risks.

Vaccination is a specific, most effective protection against infectious diseases. The effectiveness, safety, and impact of vaccination against infectious diseases have long been based on scientific evidence; research is constantly being conducted and results are published. For evidence-based information we recommend the publications by appropriate international organizations such as the World Health Organization and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, as well as European Commission and scientific journals.

The measles vaccine, like any other vaccine, may cause an adverse reaction; however not everyone gets it. The most common adverse reactions caused by the MMR vaccine are redness at the injection site and/or fever of 37.5°C. Clinical symptoms may include rash, runny nose, mild cough and Koplik`s spots.

A full course of rabies vaccine consists of 5 doses given over a period of one month, in the following order: on day zero (the day of the first dose), on the 3rd day, on the 7th day, on the 14th day, and on the 28th day, counting from day zero.

The aim of vaccination is to protect travellers going to endemic areas from infectious diseases, as well as to protect the local population from the travellers from endemic areas.

This is the division of vaccination established by the World Health Organization (WHO).
Required vaccines: regulated by the WHO International Health Regulations (IHR), usually they are vaccines against yellow fever, poliomyelitis and meningococcal infection (vaccinations are required for pilgrims going to Mecca (Hajj, Umrah), in some countries - returning from this area).
Routine vaccines: are administered in accordance with the national legislation for specific age groups.
Recommended vaccinations: recommended depending on the specific country with regard to specific infectious diseases common in that area, individual risk of the traveller, etc.

You should always look for the information on the epidemiological situation in the country you are planning to travel to.
Most common travel vaccines : yellow fever, viral Hepatitis A and B, typhoid, diphtheria, tetanus and COVID-19. If there is a likelihood of direct contact with animals, especially wild ones, vaccination against rabies is recommended. 

Not all foreign travellers are required to hold the International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis. The World Health Organization (WHO) annually updates recommendations for travellers to all countries of the world. All information is available at

The certificate of vaccination against yellow fever is valid for life (it becomes valid 10 days after the vaccination) in accordance with the amendments to Annex 7 of the International Health Regulations by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11/07/2016.

There are no mandatory vaccinations in Lithuania.
It is recommended to vaccinate children against 14 infectious diseases: tuberculosis, Hepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, poliomyelitis, measles, rubella, pneumococcal infection, epidemic parotitis, haemophilus influenzae type B, meningococcal infection type B, rotavirus infection, and human papillomavirus. Vaccinations are included in the Preventive Vaccination Schedule for Children of the Republic of Lithuania and are financed by the State.

Yes. For children who, for various reasons, were not vaccinated in accordance with the Preventive Vaccination Schedule for Children of the Republic of Lithuania valid at that time, individual vaccination plans are drawn up by a health care institution taking into account the age of the child being vaccinated and the indications for vaccination.

No. State funded vaccination against rotavirus infection for 2-month-old infants was introduced on 1st September 2018, hence only those born on 1st July 2018 and later are vaccinated.

Two new vaccines have been added - meningococcal type B vaccine (as of 1 July 2018) and rotavirus infection vaccine (as of 1 September 2018).
As of 4 May 2021, the following changes have occurred:
1. Girls are vaccinated with two doses of the HPV (human papillomavirus) vaccine free of charge. When more than two doses of the vaccine are required, two doses are given free of charge whereas the other doses are administered at your own expense. Vaccination administered at your own expense is not reimbursed.
2. Immune medicinal products provided for in the National Programme of Immunoprophylaxis 2019-2023, approved by the Minister of Health of the Republic of Lithuania 28 January 2019 by Order no. V-115 "On the approval of the National Programme of Immunoprophylaxis 2019-2023" can be administered to children after transplants or children after immunosuppressive treatment, when immunization is required repeatedly according to an individual vaccination plan selected and drawn up by the doctor.
3. Vaccinations are free of charge only with centrally purchased immune medicinal preparations. If a person has purchased a different immune medicinal product at his/her own expense, the costs of purchasing such preparations are not reimbursed.

The first dose of the vaccine is given at the health care facility, where the person received medical attention and was prescribed post-exposure rabies immunoprophylaxis. The remaining doses of rabies immune medicinal products are administered at the same or another health care facility.

Since rabies is almost always fatal, there is no contraindication to post-exposure immunization.

Yes, the employer or a person authorized by him, based on the list specified in the Order of the Minister of Health, after assessing the risk of the employee of contracting a contagious disease in a specific workplace, compiles a list of employees to be vaccinated at the employer's expense.
Employers can independently make a decision regarding vaccination of employees involved in other activities at the expense of the employer against infectious diseases that are not listed in the legal act.

Exact information about your vaccinations can only be found in your personal health documents, by contacting the health care facility where you were vaccinated.
When preparing for a trip, it is recommended to contact a personal health care institution for a vaccination plan. It is important to know that when going to countries where mandatory vaccinations are required, it is necessary to have the International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (“Yellow card”) issued by a health care facility. Travellers without the Certificate are not allowed to enter the country or are isolated for the appropriate period. Information about required and recommended vaccinations when traveling to a specific country can be found on the mobile app "Travel Safely" of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Lithuania or on NVSC website

Note: All information can only be obtained by contacting a health care facility where the vaccinations were performed. It is recommended to apply in writing.

The vaccinated person is warned of the possibility of side effects. You can do your routine activities without restrictions after vaccination.
The most important thing is not to scratch, rub or otherwise irritate the puncture site. It is not recommended to have a hot bath or sauna immediately after the vaccination, as this activates blood circulation, which encourages the vaccine to be absorbed more quickly in the body, instead of acting gradually. Gradual assimilation of the vaccine ensures a safer way for immunity to form.

While there is some evidence that natural infection provides strong immunity, the difference between the two lies in the "price" you have to pay for immunity.
The "price" you have to pay for vaccination is the inconvenience of multiple injections and sometimes a sore arm, whereas the "price" you pay for every naturally occurring infection is much higher, e.g.  poliomyelitis may lead to paralysis or  mental retardation; infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae B (Hib infection)  may lead to meningitis, myocarditis, and sepsis; viral hepatitis B can lead to liver cirrhosis; epidemic parotitis (mumps) can cause deafness; chickenpox can result in pneumonia, etc.

It should be understood that the main purpose of vaccination is to prevent complications and death.

Immunity fades over time for both those who get sick naturally and those who are vaccinated. Also, there is no 100% protection against the virus in both cases. However, the risk of natural infection, that may cause complications, severe course of the disease, and death, is many times higher than that of the vaccine. This is the reason vaccine was created: to teach the body to resist the threat, to train the immune system to recognize a pathogen and to be prepared to help fight it if it encounters this enemy in the future.

The concept of complication corresponds to the concept of "adverse reaction" and is used in the same sense.

Adverse drug reaction – an unwanted and negative response of the body to a medicinal product, that occurs when taking a normal dose of a registered medicinal product intended for the prevention, diagnosis or treatment of a human disease or to restore, correct or modify a physiological function, or any dose of an investigational medicinal product.

The most common adverse reactions to the vaccine (ADR) are local reactions: redness, swelling, soreness at the injection site. More general adverse reactions such as fever, lethargy, restlessness, incessant (unusual) crying, rash, etc., may also occur.
Individual body reacts to each vaccine differently.

Not only the treating doctor, but also the patient himself or his relatives can report to the  State Medicines Control Agency (VVKT).

Reporting can be done in the following ways: directly on the Internet by logging in to and filling in the form or filling in the reporting form for patients or specialists and sending it to the specified address, or make a free phone call at 8 800 735 68 (only the patient himself can call).

The requirements differ from country to country as not all tropical countries or areas have a high risk of contracting malaria. It also depends on the endemic form of malaria in that area and the individual's health status.
NVSC specialists or infectious disease experts should be consulted on this issue.

Last updated: 18-11-2022